NAZARBEKIAN, General TOVMAS (Foma I.
Nazarbekov) (Tiflis 1855 – Tiflis 1931) Born to a wealthy Russianised family.
Attended the military academy in Moscow. Participated in the Russo–Turkish war
of 1877–8, and in the Russo–Japanese war of 1904–5, in which he was decorated
with the Cross and the Sabre of St George. Resigned his commission when tsarist
policy turned against the Armenians; but returned to the army when Russia
abandoned her anti-Armenian stance. Appointed a general on the Caucasian front
in 1914; scored great victory over Khalil Pasha at Diliman (not mentioned in
Allen and Muratoff, Caucasian Battlefields). Occupied Bitlis.
Commissioned to lead the Armenian corps, December 1917. Ordered by Chkhenkeli to
abandon Kars, 23–4 April 1918. Driven back to Dilidjan during the battle of
Sardarabad. Commander-in-chief of Armenian army after the republic's
independence; found establishment of discipline impossible, with abolition of
death penalty (May 1917). Held that this led to demoralisation which lost Kars.
Arrested in January 1921 after the Sovietisation of Armenia, along with 1,200
other officers. Amnestied in May 1921. Settled in Tiflis; lived quietly for the
last ten years of his life.